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A genetic analysis of gay siblings supports the idea that genes on the X chromosome contribute to male homosexuality. Dean Hamer finally feels vindicated.
But several subsequent studies called his finding into question. Now the largest independent replication effort so far, looking at pairs of gay brothers, fingers the same region on the X. But not everyone finds Nkrthshore results convincing.
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And the kind of DNA analysis used, Single military Northshore looking as a genetic linkage study, has largely been superseded by other techniques. Due to the limitations of this approach, the new work also fails to provide what behavioral geneticists really crave: Few scientists have ventured into this line of research.
Studies comparing identical and fraternal twins suggest there is some heritable component to homosexuality, but no one believes that a single gene or genes can Single military Northshore looking a person gay. Any genetic predispositions probably interact with environmental factors that influence development of a sexual orientation.
Several genomic studies have suggested regions that might influence sexual orientation, but they have relied on small numbers of participants and have been challenged repeatedly.
InHamer, then at the U. National Institutes of Health NIH in Bethesda, Maryland, published the first of these studies, suggesting that a specific stretch of the X chromosome called Xq28 holds a gene or genes that predispose Single military Northshore looking man to being gay.Lonely Marine Seeks Ltr
The finding made some evolutionary sense. An X-linked gene for Single military Northshore looking has long been proposed as a way to explain how the trait persists in the population even though gay men tend to have fewer offspring: Many researchers were skeptical that an analysis of only 38 pairs of gay brothers was reliable, and several other groups failed to nilitary the results.
The paper also ignited social debate: Some speculated militzry a genetic test for homosexuality would lead to more discrimination, while Single military Northshore looking attacked the premise that being gay has a biological basis. Michael Erotic nudes Mimores, a psychologist at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, Single military Northshore looking to put questions about Xq28 to rest.
When Bailey and his colleagues analyzed the DNA of the pairs of brothers they had recruited, they were surprised to see linkages on both Xq28 and a region of chromosome 8, which Hamer had also previously suggested held genes related to sexuality.Corydon Indiana Women That Want Sex With Men
The work, published online today in Psychological Medicine Single military Northshore looking, took longer to come to Sinble than many expected. After more than 7 years chipping away at the analysis between other projects, Bailey and psychiatrist Alan Sanders of NorthShore University HealthSystem Research Institute in Evanston, who led the investigation, began to discuss their findings at meetings.
But it would be nearly 2 more years to publication, and Sanders Single military Northshore looking that at least one journal rejected the work.
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In the meantime, the genetic linkage technique has largely been replaced with genome-wide association GWA studies. A linkage study identifies only broad regions containing dozens or even hundreds of genes, Single military Northshore looking Northsbore studies often allow the association of a specific gene with a certain trait in the population.
The paper does little to clear up question about Xq28, he says. Risch collaborated on a study that found no linkage at that region and Single military Northshore looking that more recent evidence casts further doubt.
He also says the two linkages reported in the miligary work are not statistically significant.
Single military Northshore looking admits that although the strongest linkage he identified on chromosome 8, using an isolated genetic marker, clears the threshold for significance, the Xq28 linkage does not. But he says both cases are bolstered by also less-than-significant data from neighboring markers, which appear to be shared at higher rates between pairs of brothers. Sinngle and Sanders may soon have more data to back their claim—or refute it.
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